Silver nanoparticles Dental materials – What’s new?
Silver nanoparticles are starting to be used in dental materials of all sorts. Well experimentally, anyway. There has been a bit of an uptick in research being put out and most of it looks very promising. Silver particles are already being used as antimicrobial agents for wound dressing, cardiac prostheses, and bone prostheses. Dental composite resins, tissue conditioners, acrylic resins, and mouth rinses are some of the products that contain silver zeolite.
How do silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) work and are they safe?
Silver nanoparticles work by destroying bacterial basement membranes and increasing permeability when in direct contact. Silver produces antibacterial effects by interacting with various proteins. Since AgNPs are toxic, the major issue is keeping the levels of silver ions released to a minimum. Another issue is maintaining the materials desired properties. Ideally a product would contain a high enough concentration to inhibit bacterial growth, but not release silver ions at all. Our diets have a natural amount of silver in the range of 7µg Gibson 83 up to a range of 20-80µg reference.
Silver nanoparticles in orthodontics
AgNPs were added to the acrylic of removable retainers and the resulting Streptococcus mutans colonies dropped by 40%. Farhadian 2016 AJO-DO
Silver nanoparticles in endodontics
SDF (Silver Diamine Fluoride) could be used as an interappointment dressing, however the tooth will likely stain black so needs to be a molar. Hiraishi JOE 2010
AgNP effective as dressing but not as irrigant Wu 2014 JOE
Using silver nanoparticles in a rinse solution appears to be similar in effectiveness as NaOCl. Gonzalez-Luna 2016 J Nanomaterials
Silver nanoparticles dental materials generic
Dental sealants with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)
Silver zirconium phosphate (AgZrPO4) in dental resins significantly inhibits S. mutans. Thaweboon 2016
Dental resins with AgNPs
The addition of β-AgVO3 can provide acrylic resins with antibacterial activity but reduces their impact strength. de Castro 2016 JPD
Alginate materiel with AgNPs
Adding AgNPs to irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials resulted in superior antimicrobial activity without adversely affecting their properties. Ginjupalli JPD 2016. Seems like of all the dental materials containing silver nanoparticles, this one sounds the most promising.
Denture liner material with AgNPs
Modification of soft liner materials with silver nanoparticles results in a material that should be capable of preventing colonization of Candida albicans. Chladek 2011 Int J Mol Sci. The same author is clearly looking at perfecting this product. In addition to his first article, he later published results testing acceptable concentrations that would not effect properties. Chladek 2013 Int J Mol Sci. Also, Nam 2011 J Adv Pro did similar work to Chladek’s first study.
Silver nanoparticles dental materials – A match waiting to happen? We’ll see!!
Other nanoparticles used in dentistry that I might make a blog about.
Quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine (QPEI) in resin for antimicrobial effect.
- It will not leach out or impact mechanical properties. Beyth Biomaterials 2006
- QPEI will maintain it’s bacterial properties even after polishing the resin. Pietrokovski JPD 2016